Solar Charge Controllers:
The function of a MPPT is analogous to the transmission in a car. When the transmission is in the wrong gear, the wheels do not receive maximum power. That's because the engine is running either slower or faster than its ideal speed range. The purpose of the transmission is to couple the engine to the wheels, in a way that lets the engine run in a favorable speed range in spite of varying acceleration and terrain
Let's compare a PV module to a car engine. Its voltage is analogous to engine speed. Its ideal voltage is that at which it can put out maximum power. This is called its maximum power point. (It's also called peak power voltage, abbreviated Vpp). Vpp varies with sunlight intensity and with solar cell temperature. The voltage of the battery is analogous to the speed of the car's wheels. It varies with battery state of charge, and with the loads on the system (any appliances and lights that may be on). For a 12V system, it varies from about 11 to 14.5V.
In order to charge a battery (increase its voltage), the PV module must apply a voltage that is higher than that of the battery. If the PV module's Vpp is just slightly below the battery voltage, then the current drops nearly to zero (like an engine turning slower than the wheels). So, to play it safe, typical PV modules are made with a Vpp of around 17V when measured at a cell temperature of 25'C. They do that because it will drop to around 15V on a very hot day. However, on a very cold day, it can rise to 18V!