Solar Charge Controllers:
The function of a MPPT is analogous to the transmission in a car. When the transmission is in the wrong gear, the wheels do not receive maximum power. That's because the engine is running either slower or faster than its ideal speed range. The purpose of the transmission is to couple the engine to the wheels, in a way that lets the engine run in a favorable speed range in spite of varying acceleration and terrain
Let's compare a PV module to a car engine. Its voltage is analogous to engine speed. Its ideal voltage is that at which it can put out maximum power. This is called its maximum power point. (It's also called peak power voltage, abbreviated Vpp). Vpp varies with sunlight intensity and with solar cell temperature. The voltage of the battery is analogous to the speed of the car's wheels. It varies with battery state of charge, and with the loads on the system (any appliances and lights that may be on). For a 12V system, it varies from about 11 to 14.5V.
In order to charge a battery (increase its voltage), the PV module must apply a voltage that is higher than that of the battery. If the PV module's Vpp is just slightly below the battery voltage, then the current drops nearly to zero (like an engine turning slower than the wheels). So, to play it safe, typical PV modules are made with a Vpp of around 17V when measured at a cell temperature of 25'C. They do that because it will drop to around 15V on a very hot day. However, on a very cold day, it can rise to 18V!
Main Functional Features of Solar Charge Controllers:
- MPPT controllers offer a potential increase in charging efficiency up to 30% (Maximizes energy harvest)
- These controllers also offer the potential ability to have an array with higher input voltage than the battery bank
- You can get sizes up to 80 Amps
- MPPT controller warranties are typically longer than PWM units
- MPPT offer great flexibility for system growth
- longer Battery life
- extensive electronic Protections
- Fully adjustable and highly reliable
- MCU based buck converter 12/24Volt 20/40A.
- MPPT Technology, efficiency improved by more than 20%.
- First in its class LCD with Power and Energy measurement.
- Menu settable configuration using 2x16 LCD and 3 push buttons.
- Menu settable Battery voltage, battery current , Float voltage and Float current.
- Three stage Charging.
- Over voltage/Over current protection.
- Optional relays to control Mains charger and Inverter.
- lower System Cost
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